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Health Disparities in Medical Education Task Force — Resource Repository (2)

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Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

Articles

Books

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Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

Title: Racial Disparities in Medical Student Membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society

  • Author: Dowin Boatright, MD, MBA; David Ross, MD, PhD; Patrick O’Connor, MD, MPH; et al
  • Organization/Journal: JAMA Internal Medicine
  • Category: Disparities
  • Brief Description: Black and Asian medical students were less likely than their white counterparts to be members of AΩA, which may reflect bias in selection. In turn, AΩA membership selection may affect future opportunities for minority medical students.

Title: Stolen Breaths

  • Author: Rachel R. Hardeman, Ph.D., M.P.H.,Eduardo M. Medina, M.D., M.P.H.,and Rhea W. Boyd, M.D., M.P.H.
  • Organization/Journal: The New England Journal of Medicine
  • Category: Anti-Racism (Medicine)

Title: Structural Racism — A 60-Year-Old Black Woman with Breast Cancer

  • Author: Kristen Pallok, B.S., Fernando De Maio, Ph.D., and David A. Ansell, M.D., M.P.H.
  • Organization/Journal: The New England Journal of Medicine

Title: Structural Violence and Clinical Medicine

  • Author: Farmer PE, Nizeye B, Stulac S, Keshavjee S
  • Organization/Journal: PLOS Medicine

Title: Mention of a Patient’s “Race” in Clinical Presentations

  • Author: Thomas E. Finucane, MD
  • Organization/Journal: AMA Journal of Ethics

Title: Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care

  • Author: Brian D. Smedley, Adrienne Y. Stith, Alan R. Nelson
  • Organization/Journal: Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care; NIH - National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information 
  • Brief Description: Racial and ethnic disparities in health care are known to reflect access to care and other issues that arise from differing socioeconomic conditions. There is, however, increasing evidence that even after such differences are accounted for, race and ethnicity remain significant predictors of the quality of health care received. In Unequal Treatment, a panel of experts documents this evidence and explores how persons of color experience the health care environment. The book examines how disparities in treatment may arise in health care systems and looks at aspects of the clinical encounter that may contribute to such disparities. Patients' and providers' attitudes, expectations, and behavior are analyzed. How to intervene? Unequal Treatment offers recommendations for improvements in medical care financing, allocation of care, availability of language translation, community-based care, and other arenas. The committee highlights the potential of cross-cultural education to improve provider-patient communication and offers a detailed look at how to integrate cross-cultural learning within the health professions. The book concludes with recommendations for data collection and research initiatives. Unequal Treatment will be vitally important to health care policymakers, administrators, providers, educators, and students as well as advocates for people of color.

Title: Framing the Dialogue on Race and Ethnicity to Advance Health Equity; Proceedings of a Workshop

  • Author: Darla Thompson, Rapporteur
  • Organization/Journal: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
  • Brief Description: In February 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in which speakers shared strategies for individuals, organizations, and communities to advance racial and health equity. Participants discussed increasing awareness about the role of historical contexts and dominant narratives in interpreting data and information about different racial and ethnic groups, framing messages for different social and political outcomes, and readying people to institutionalize practices, policies, and partnerships that advance racial and health equity. This publication serves as a factual summary of the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Title: The Promises and Perils of Digital Strategies in Achieving Health Equity; Workshop Summary

  • Author: Karen M. Anderson and Steve Olson, Rapporteurs
  • Organization/Journal: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
  • Brief Description: Health care is in the midst of a dramatic transformation in the United States. Spurred by technological advances, economic imperatives, and governmental policies, information technologies are rapidly being applied to health care in an effort to improve access, enhance quality, and decrease costs. At the same time, the use of technologies by the consumers of health care is changing how people interact with the health care system and with health information. These changes in health care have the potential both to exacerbate and to diminish the stark disparities in health and well-being that exist among population groups in the United States. If the benefits of technology flow disproportionately to those who already enjoy better coverage, use, and outcomes than disadvantaged groups, heath disparities could increase. But if technologies can be developed and implemented in such a way to improve access and enhance quality for the members of all groups, the ongoing transformation of health care could reduce the gaps among groups while improving health care for all. To explore the potential for further insights into, and opportunities to address, disparities in underserved populations the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in October 2014. The workshop focused on (1) how communities are using digital health technologies to improve health outcomes for racial and ethnic minority populations, (2) how community engagement can improve access to high-quality health information for members of these groups, and (3) on models of successful technology-based strategies to reduce health disparities. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions at the workshop.

Title: Time to Take Stock: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Analgesic Treatment Disparities for Pain in the United States

  • Author: Salimah H Meghani, Eeeseung Byun, Rollin M Gallagher
  • Organization/Journal: NIH - National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information
  • Brief Description: Our study quantifies the magnitude of analgesic treatment disparities in subgroups of minorities. The size of the difference was sufficiently large to raise not only normative but quality and safety concerns. The treatment gap does not appear to be closing with time or existing policy initiatives. A concerted strategy is needed to reduce pain care disparities within the larger quality of care initiatives.

Title: Structural Solutions for the Rarest of the Rare — Underrepresented-Minority Faculty in Medical Subspecialties

  • Author: Kemi M. Doll, M.D., and Charles R. Thomas, Jr., M.D
  • Organization/Journal: The New England Journal of Medicine

Title: Changing How Race Is Portrayed in Medical Education: Recommendations From Medical Students

  • Author: Edwin Nieblas-Bedolla, Briana Christophers, Naomi T Nkinsi, Paul D Schumann, Elizabeth Stein
  • Organization/Journal: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
  • Brief Description: The medical community has been complicit in legitimizing claims of racial difference throughout the history of the United States. Unfortunately, a rigorous examination of the role medicine plays in perpetuating inequity across racial lines is often missing in medical school curricula due to time constraints and other challenges inherent to medical education. The imprecise use of race-a social construct-as a proxy for pathology in medical education is a vestige of institutionalized racism. Recent examples are presented that illustrate how attributing outcomes to race may contribute to bias and unequal care. This paper proposes the following recommendations for guiding efforts to mitigate the adverse effects associated with the use of race in medical education: emphasize the need for incoming students to be familiar with how race can influence health outcomes; provide opportunities to hold open conversations about race in medicine among medical school faculty, students, and staff; craft and implement protocols that address and correct the inappropriate use of race in medical school classes and course materials; and encourage a large cultural shift within the field of medicine. Adoption of an interdisciplinary approach that taps into many fields, including ethics, history, sociology, evolutionary genetics, and public health is a necessary step for cultivating more thoughtful physicians who will be better prepared to care for patients of all racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Title: Creating Real Change at Academic Medical Centers — How Social Movements Can Be Timely Catalysts

  • Author: Michelle Morse, M.D., M.P.H. and Joseph Loscalzo, M.D., Ph.D.
  • Organization/Journal: The New England Journal of Medicine

Title: Race Is Associated with Differences in Airway Inflammation in Patients with Asthma

  • Author: Nyenhuis SM, Krishnan JA, Berry A, et al
  • Organization/Journal: NIH - National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information
  • Brief Description: African American subjects exhibit greater eosinophilic airway inflammation, which might explain the greater asthma burden in this population.

Title: Black Kidney Function Matters: Use or Misuse of Race?

  • Author: Neil R. Powe, MD, MPH, MBA
  • Organization/Journal: JAMA

Title: Innovative Health Care Disparities Curriculum for Incoming Medical Students

  • Author: Monica B. Vela, MD, Karen E. Kim, MD, Hui Tang, MS, MS, and Marshall H. Chin, MD, MPH
  • Organization/Journal: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine
  • Brief Description: This innovative course provided students an opportunity for learning and exploration of a comprehensive curriculum on health disparities at a critical formative time.

Title: Health Equity Rounds: An Interdisciplinary Case Conference to Address Implicit Bias and Structural Racism for Faculty and Trainees

  • Author: Perdomo, Joanna et al
  • Organization/Journal: AAMC MedEdPORTAL
  • Brief Description: The medical community recognizes the importance of confronting structural racism and implicit bias to address health inequities. Several curricula aimed at teaching trainees about these issues are described in the literature. However, few curricula exist that engage faculty members as learners rather than teachers of these topics or target interdisciplinary audiences. Methods: We developed a longitudinal case conference curriculum called Health Equity Rounds (HER) to discuss and address the impact of structural racism and implicit bias on patient care. The curriculum engaged participants across training levels and disciplines on these topics utilizing case-based discussion, evidence-based exercises, and two relevant conceptual frameworks. It was delivered quarterly as part of a departmental case conference series. We evaluated HER's feasibility and acceptability by tracking conference attendance and administering post-conference surveys. We analyzed quantitative survey data using descriptive statistics and qualitatively reviewed free-text comments. Results: We delivered seven 1-hour HER conferences at our institution from June 2016 to June 2018. A mean of 66 participants attended each HER. Most survey respondents (88% or more) indicated that HER promoted personal reflection on implicit bias, and 75% or more indicated that HER would impact their clinical practice. Discussion: HER provided a unique forum for practitioners across training levels to address structural racism and implicit bias. Our aim in dissemination is to provide meaningful tools for others to adapt at their own institutions, recognizing that HER should serve as a component of larger, multifaceted efforts to decrease structural racism and implicit bias in health care.

Title: Addressing Racial Health Inequities: Understanding the Impact of Affirmative Action Bans on Applications and Admissions in Medical Schools

  • Author: Mickey-Pabello D and Garces LM
  • Organization/Journal: American Journal of Education

Title: “It Just Weighs in the Back of Your Mind”: Microaggressions in Science

  • Author: Anderson AJ, Sánchez B, Reyna C, and Rasgado-Flores H
  • Organization/Journal: Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
  • Brief Description: Microaggressions may be particularly influential on the career development of women and racial/ethnic minorities in science. This study explored racial/ethnic and gender microaggressions in the sciences by exploring two research questions: 1) What are participants’ perceptions of racial/ethnic and gender microaggressions in the sciences 2) What are participants’ perceptions of how racial/ethnic and gender microaggressions play a role in science education and careers? Qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 youth, 11 graduate students, and 13 faculty members who were part of a science support program for Latinx youth. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a thematic approach and directed content analysis. Analyses revealed experiences of 1) microinsults, 2) microinvalidations, and 3) environmental microaggressions. Participants reported four ways in which microaggressions impacted their science education and career development, including: (1) detrimental to psychological well-being, (2) mobility across science contexts, (3) pressure to prove ability and competence, and (4) sense of social isolation. These findings reveal the role of microaggressions as an important factor negatively influencing career development. The current study has implications for increasing well-being, retention, and participation of women and underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in the sciences.

Title: Exploring Racism and Health: An Intensive Interactive Session for Medical Students

  • Author: DallaPiazza M, et al.
  • Organization/Journal: AAMC MedEdPORTAL
  • Brief Description: Active student involvement in curriculum development and small-group facilitation was critical for successful buy-in from students. Additional content on bias, stereotyping, and health care disparities will be the focus of faculty development programs and will also be integrated into the clerkships to build on these important topics as students are immersed in clinical care.

Title: Racial Microaggressions and Difficult Dialogues on Race in the Classroom

  • Author: Sue DW, Lin AI, Torino CG, Capodilupo CM, and Rivera DP.
  • Organization/Journal: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology

Title: Under the Radar: How Unexamined Biases in Decision-Making Processes in Clinical Interactions Can Contribute to Health Care Disparities

  • Author: Dovidio JF, and Fiske ST.
  • Organization/Journal: American Journal of Public Health
  • Brief Description: Several aspects of social psychological science shed light on how unexamined racial/ethnic biases contribute to health care disparities. Biases are complex but systematic, differing by racial/ethnic group and not limited to love–hate polarities. Group images on the universal social cognitive dimensions of competence and warmth determine the content of each group's overall stereotype, distinct emotional prejudices (pity, envy, disgust, pride), and discriminatory tendencies. These biases are often unconscious and occur despite the best intentions. Such ambivalent and automatic biases can influence medical decisions and interactions, systematically producing discrimination in health care and ultimately disparities in health. Understanding how these processes may contribute to bias in health care can help guide interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities in health.

Title: Levels of Racism: A Theoretic Framework and a Gardener's Tale

  • Author: Jones, Camara Phyllis
  • Organization/Journal: American Journal of Public Health
  • Brief Description: The author presents a theoretic framework for understanding racism on 3 levels: institutionalized, personally mediated, and internalized. This framework is useful for raising new hypotheses about the basis of race-associated differences in health outcomes, as well as for designing effective interventions to eliminate those differences. She then presents an allegory about a gardener with 2 flower boxes, rich and poor soil, and red and pink flowers. This allegory illustrates the relationship between the 3 levels of racism and may guide our thinking about how to intervene to mitigate the impacts of racism on health. It may also serve as a tool for starting a national conversation on racism.

Title: Race and Medicine

  • Organization/Journal: The New England Journal of Medicine
  • Brief Description: A selection of articles on race and medicine, with implications for improving patient care, professional training, research, and public health.

Articles

Title: ‘The Direct Result of Racism’: Covid-19 Lays Bare How Discrimination Drives Health Disparities Among Black People

  • Author: Meghana Keshavan
  • Organization/Journal: STAT
  • Category: Disparities

Title: Implicit Bias Curricula in Medical School: Student and Faculty Perspectives

  • Author: Swapna Reddy et al
  • Organization/Journal: Health Affairs
  • Category: Anti-Racism (Medicine)

Title: Letter to Neurosurgery From a Black Male Medical Student

  • Author: Alvin C. Onyewuenyi, MPH, CMS '22
  • Organization/Journal: Medical Student Neurosurgery Training Center; Brain and Spine Group

Title: Anti-Racism Resources

  • Organization/Journal: Anti-Racism Resources - Google Site

Title: Social Medicine Consortium

  • Organization/Journal: Social Medicine Consortium

Title: On Racism: A New Standard For Publishing On Racial Health Inequities

  • Author: Rhea W. Boyd, et al
  • Organization/Journal: Health Affairs

Title: How a Popular Medical Device Encodes Racial Bias

  • Author: Amy Moran-Thomas
  • Organization/Journal: Boston Review
  • Brief Description: Pulse oximeters give biased results for people with darker skin. The consequences could be serious.

Title: Why Doesn’t Medical School Prioritize Social Justice?

  • Author: LaShyra Nolen
  • Organization/Journal: Boston Globe
  • Brief Description: If academic medical institutions are serious about equity, work in the community should be celebrated as much as research papers are.

Title: Opinion: The Politics of Science and Racism

  • Author: Sadye Paez and Erich D. Jarvis
  • Organization/Journal: The Scientist
  • Brief Description: Race has been used to segment humanity and, by extension, establish and enforce a hierarchy in science. Individual and institutional commitments to racial justice in the sciences must involve political activity.

Title: COVID-19 Mental-Health Responses Neglect Social Realities

  • Author: Rochelle Burgess
  • Organization/Journal: Nature World View
  • Brief Description: A diagnosis is rarely a solution to problems caused by poverty and inequality.

Title: Mass Incarceration and Public Health: The Association Between Black Jail Incarceration and Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Black Women in Louisiana

  • Author: Dyer, L., Hardeman, R., Vilda, D. et al.
  • Organization/Journal: BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
  • Brief Description: Due to the positive significant associations between the prevalence of black individuals incarcerated in Louisiana jails and estimated risk of preterm birth, mass incarceration may be an underlying cause of the persistent inequities in reproductive health outcomes experienced by black women in Louisiana. Not only are there economic and social impacts stemming from mass incarceration, but there may also be implications for population health and health inequities, including the persistence of racial disparities in preterm birth and low birth weight.

Title: Challenges and Disparities in the Application of Personalized Genomic Medicine to Populations with African Ancestry

  • Author: Kessler MD, et al.
  • Organization/Journal: Nature Communications
  • Brief Description: To characterize the extent and impact of ancestry-related biases in precision genomic medicine, we use 642 whole-genome sequences from the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA) project to evaluate typical filters and databases. We find significant correlations between estimated African ancestry proportions and the number of variants per individual in all variant classification sets but one. The source of these correlations is highlighted in more detail by looking at the interaction between filtering criteria and the ClinVar and Human Gene Mutation databases. ClinVar’s correlation, representing African ancestry-related bias, has changed over time amidst monthly updates, with the most extreme switch happening between March and April of 2014 (r=0.733 to r=−0.683). We identify 68 SNPs as the major drivers of this change in correlation. As long as ancestry-related bias when using these clinical databases is minimally recognized, the genetics community will face challenges with implementation, interpretation and cost-effectiveness when treating minority populations.

Title: To Improve Diversity, Don’t Make People Go to Diversity Training. Really.

  • Author: McGregor J.
  • Organization/Journal: The Washington Post

Title: How Training Doctors in Implicit Bias Could Save the Lives of Black Mothers

  • Author: Elizabeth Chuck
  • Organization/Journal: NBC News
  • Brief Description: Black women are three to four times more likely than white women to die of pregnancy-related causes. Doctors are taking a new approach to the crisis.

Title: Too Many Senior White Academics Still Resist Recognizing Racism

  • Author: Namandjé Bumpus
  • Organization/Journal: Nature
  • Brief Description: As a Black woman who is the chair of a university science department, people have questioned my right to exist at every stage.

Title: Black Lives Matter: Health Disparities

  • Organization/Journal: Springer Nature

Title: News and Trends: Spotlight on Systemic Racism in Higher Education

  • Author: Charlotte Beyer, MSIS, AHIP
  • Organization/Journal: Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science

Title: COVID-19 Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Counties

  • Organization/Journal: amfAR
  • Brief Description: Since early in the epidemic, there has been evidence that Black and Latinx Americans were disproportionately at risk for COVID-19 infection and death. 7 months into the epidemic in the United States, however, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on race/ethnicity are mostly unknown. For cases, race/ethnicity is known for only 37% of cases (1,426,351 out of 3,882,167 total reported cases) (July 22, 2020). For deaths, data are available for 66% of reported deaths (93,560 of 141,677). Structural factors including health care access, density of households, unemployment and types of employment, pervasive discrimination and others drive these disparities, not intrinsic characteristics of black or Latinx communities or individual-level factors. Because alternative methods are needed to estimate the impact of COVID-19 in black and Latinx communities, comparisons of COVID-19 cases and deaths in above average black (> 13% of the population) and Latinx (> 17.8% of the population) counties versus all other US counties. This webpage provides additional information on these counties at greater risk for COVID-19 through graphs and maps, and data are updated daily.

Title: The COVID-19 Response Is Failing Communities of Color

  • Author: Pichardo MS, Cristophers B, and Ortega G.
  • Organization/Journal: Scientific American
  • Brief Description: To build trust with traditionally underserved groups, health officials need to craft their messaging in a much more culturally sensitive way.

Title: Wang Paper Is Wrong: Diversity, Equity and Inclusiveness in Medicine and Cardiology Are Important and Necessary

  • Author: American Heart Association
  • Organization/Journal: American Heart Association
  • Brief Description: The American Heart Association (AHA) has retracted a paper by Norman C. Wang, MD, MS ("Diversity, Inclusion, and Equity: Evolution of Race and Ethnicity Considerations for the Cardiology Workforce in the United States of America From 1969 to 2019") which was published in the March 2020 issue of the Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA) . David Skorkon, MD, AAMC President and CEO, issued this statement in support of the AHA's response. 

Title: President’s Commission on Slavery and the University; Chapter 44 Medical Education, Grave-Robbing, and Violence to the Black Body

  • Author: Marcus L. Martin, Kirt von Daacke, Meghan S. Faulkner
  • Organization/Journal: University of Virginia

Title: A History: The Construction of Race and Racism

  • Author: This curriculum was developed by David Rogers and Moira Bowman for use in the Western States Center’s Dismantling Racism Program.
  • Organization/Journal: PDF - Dismantling Racism Project, Western States Center

Title: Unconscious Bias in Academic Medicine: Overcoming the Prejudices We Don’t Know We Have

  • Author: Eve Glicksman
  • Organization/Journal: AAMC
  • Category: Anti-Racism (Medicine)

Title: Racial Justice, Racial Equity, and Anti-Racism Reading List

  • Organization/Journal: Harvard Kennedy School
  • Category: Anti-Racism
  • Brief Description: Reading list

Title: Anti-Racism in Medicine Collection

  • Organization/Journal: AAMC
  • Category: Anti-Racism (Medicine)
  • Brief Description: Collection within MedEdPORTAL provides educators with practice-based, peer-reviewed resources to teach anti-racist knowledge and clinical skills, elevates the educational scholarship of anti-racist curricula, and aims to convene a community of collaborators dedicated to the elimination of racism within medical education.

Title: Curriculum Collection

  • Organization/Journal: Northwestern National Collaborative for Education to Address the Social Determinants of Health

Title: Race, Ethnicity, and Language of Patients: Hospital Practices Regarding Collection of Information to Address Disparities in Health Care

  • Author: Marsha Regenstein, PhD; Donna Sickler, MPH
  • Organization/Journal: National Public Health and Hospital Institute and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

Title: Anti-Racism and Race Literacy: A Primer and Toolkit for Medical Educators

  • Author: Meghan O’Brien MD, MBE, Rachel Fields, MS, and Andrea Jackson, MD, MAS
  • Organization/Journal: University of California San Francisco

Title: Facilitating Difficult Race Discussions: Five Ineffective Strategies and Five Successful Strategies

  • Author: Derald Wing Sue, PhD 
  • Organization/Journal: Wiley
  • Brief Description: Race talk is often not about the substance of an argument, but a cover for what is actually happening. To facilitate difficult dialogue about race in a productive manner, instructors need to understand not only the content of the communication but the process resulting from the interpersonal dynamics. Exploring ineffective and effective race talk strategies will lead to more positive outcomes in the workshop and classroom setting.

Title: Why Do Doctors Practice Race-Based Medicine?

  • Author: Dorothy Roberts
  • Organization/Journal: TEDMED Blog

Title: Institute for Healing and Justice in Medicine: The Hub

  • Organization/Journal: Institute for Healing and Justice in Medicine

Title: Anti-Racism and Diversity Resources

  • Organization/Journal: American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training

Title: Racial Equity Resource Guide

  • Organization/Journal: W.K. Kellog Foundation

Books

Title: Patient-Centered Clinical Care for African Americans A Concise, Evidence-Based Guide to Important Differences and Better Outcomes

  • Author: Gregory L. Hall
  • Brief Description: This title is an easy-to-read guide outlining specific differences in communication, clinical therapies, medications, protocols, and other critical approaches to the care of African Americans. The book discusses a wide range of disorders impacting African Americans and takes a comprehensive and evidence-based approach to the clinical support of providers that see African American patients. Recording the worst medical outcomes of any racial/ethnic group in America, African Americans have the highest mortality, longest hospital length of stay, worst compliance with medications and referrals, and the lowest trust of the healthcare system. Indeed, there are countless well-designed studies that validate verified differences in the clinical care of a number of pervasive diseases in African Americans, including hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease, obesity, cancer, and more. Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the existence of health disparities among racial/ethnic groups, the overall outcomes for African Americans are still the most shocking. From high infant mortality to death by almost any cause, African Americans have the worst data of any other racial or ethnic group. Patient-Centered Clinical Care for African Americans, a highly practical and first-of-its-kind title, illuminates these alarming issues and represents a major contribution to the clinical literature. It will be of significant interest to all physicians, clinicians, and allied health personnel.

Title: Black Men, Intergenerational Colonialism, and Behavioral Health: A Noose Across Nations

  • Author: Donald E. Grant Jr.
  • Brief Description: This book provides an in-depth historical exploration of the risk and protective factors that generate disproportionality in the psychological wellness, somatic health, and general safety of Black men in four industrialized Euronormative nations. It provides a detailed analysis of how nationalism, globalism, colonialism, and imperialism have facilitated practices, philosophies, and policies to support the development and maintenance of inter-generational systems of oppression for Black men and boys. The text juxtaposes empirically-supported constructs like historical trauma and epigenetics with current outcomes for Black men in the US, the UK, France and Canada. It details how contemporary institutions, practices, and policies (such as psychological testing, the school to prison pipeline, and over-incarceration) are reiterations of historic ones (such as convict leasing, debt peonage, and the Jim Crow laws). The text uses paleontological, archaeological, and anthropological research to cover over 200,000 years of history. It closes with strength-based paradigms aimed to dismantle oppressive structures, support the post-traumatic growth of Black men and boys, and enhance the systems and practitioners that serve them.

Title: Handbook of Mental Health in African American Youth

  • Authors: Breland-Noble, Alfiee M., Al-Mateen, Cheryl S., Singh, Nirbhay N. (Eds.)
  • Brief Description: This handbook fills major gaps in the child and adolescent mental health literature by focusing on the unique challenges and resiliencies of African American youth. It combines a cultural perspective on the needs of the population with best-practice approaches to interventions. Chapters provide expert insights into sociocultural factors that influence mental health, the prevalence of particular disorders among African American adolescents, ethnically salient assessment and diagnostic methods, and the evidence base for specific models. The information presented in this handbook helps bring the field closer to critical goals: increasing access to treatment, preventing misdiagnosis and over hospitalization, and reducing and ending disparities in research and care. Topics featured in this book include: The epidemiology of mental disorders in African American youth, Culturally relevant diagnosis and assessment of mental illness, Uses of dialectical behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy, Community approaches to promoting positive mental health and psychosocial well-being, Culturally relevant psychopharmacology, Future directions for the field.The Handbook of Mental Health in African American Youth is a must-have resource for researchers, professors, and graduate students as well as clinicians and related professionals in child and school psychology, public health, family studies, child and adolescent psychiatry, family medicine, and social work.

Title: Taylor and Kelly's Dermatology for Skin of Color, 2e

  • Authors: A. Paul Kelly, Susan C. Taylor, Henry W. Lim, Ana Maria Anido Serrano
  • Type: McGraw-Hill Medical

Podcasts

Title: Hidden Brain: In the Air We Breathe

  • Author: Shankar Vedantam
  • Organization: NPR
  • Brief Description: September evening in 2016, Terence Crutcher's SUV stopped in the middle of a road in Tulsa, Okla. A woman saw him step out of the car. The doors of the car were open. The engine was still running. The woman called 911. Officer Betty Shelby was on her way to an unrelated incident when the call came in. Terence was 40, African-American, born and raised in Tulsa. He was a churchgoing man with four children. Betty was 42, white, a mother. She was born in a small town not far from Tulsa. In an ideal world, these two Oklahoma natives, close in age, ought to have had more to bring them together than hold them apart. But on this evening, there was no small talk or friendly chatter. The police officer told Terence to take his hands out of his pockets. According to her attorney, he first complied. He then put his hands up in the air. Moments later, he put his hands back in his pockets. By this point, multiple police officers had gathered and drawn their guns and Tasers. Overhead, a police chopper filmed events as they unfolded. From the video, it's hard to tell exactly what's happening on the ground, but an officer in the helicopter thinks Terence isn't cooperating.

Title: The Difference Between Being "Not Racist" and Antiracist

  • Author: Dr. Ibram X. Kendi
  • Organization: TED
  • Brief Description: There is no such thing as being "not racist," says author and historian Ibram X. Kendi. In this vital conversation, he defines the transformative concept of antiracism to help us more clearly recognize, take responsibility for and reject prejudices in our public policies, workplaces and personal beliefs. Learn how you can actively use this awareness to uproot injustice and inequality in the world — and replace it with love.

Title: Episode 120: Antiracism in Medicine Series Episode 1 — Racism, Police Violence, and Health

  • Organization: The Clinical Problem Solvers
  • Brief Description: We invite scholars and antiracist activists, Drs. Rhea Boyd and Rachel Hardeman, to discuss the meaning of structural racism, the health impacts of police violence, the “say her name” movement, and the ways we can ensure our country’s current antiracist movement grows beyond a moment.